Self Testing and Repairing Computer STAR
In 1960 he joined the Spacecraft
Computers section of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California
Institute of Technology, and initiated research on reliability
of computing systems that originated the concept of "fault tolerance", first described in a paper presented at the 1967 Fall Joint Computer Conference.
He organized and directed the JPL STAR research project
from 1961 to 1972. This effort resulted in the construction and evaluation
experimental JPL STAR (Self-Testing-And-Repairing) computer, for
which, he received U.S. Patent No. 3, 517, 171, "Self-Testing and Repairing Computer" granted on June 23, 1970 and assigned to
NASA. A paper that described the JPL STAR computer won the Best
Paper selection of the IEEE Transactions on Computers in 1971.
1969, JPL began designing a Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft,
or TOPS (Voyager1 and Voyager2 missions). Outer planet missions
ranged so far from the sun that solar cells would be inadequate.
thermoelectric generators to provide electrical power. STAR was considered
on-board computer for TOPS. Components built to STAR specifications
later found their way into the NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer